Forms and applications of fatty amines
Aliphatic amine refers to a large class of organic amine compounds with carbon chain length in the range of C8-C22. Like general amines, it is divided into four categories: primary amine, secondary amine, tertiary amine and polyamine. , tertiary amines depend on the number of hydrogen atoms in ammonia replaced by alkyl groups.
Fatty amines are organic derivatives of ammonia. C8-10 short-chain aliphatic amines have a certain solubility in water. Long-chain aliphatic amines are generally insoluble in water. They are liquid or solid at room temperature and are alkaline. Has irritating and corrosive effects.
It is mainly produced by the reaction of fatty alcohol and dimethylamine to form monoalkyldimethyl tertiary amine, the reaction of fatty alcohol and monomethylamine to form dialkyl monomethyl tertiary amine, and the reaction of fatty alcohol and ammonia to form trialkyl tertiary amine.
First, fatty acid reacts with ammonia to generate fatty nitrile, which is hydrogenated to generate aliphatic primary or secondary amine. Primary or secondary amine is hydromethylated to generate tertiary amine. Primary amine is ethylated by nitrile and then hydrogenated to generate diamine. , the diamine is further ethylated with nitrile and hydrogenated to generate triamine, and the triamine is further ethylated with nitrile and hydrogenated to generate tetraamine.
Primary amines can be used as corrosion inhibitors, lubricants, mold release agents, oil additives, pigment processing additives, thickeners, wetting agents, fertilizer dustproof agents, engine oil additives, fertilizer anti-caking agents, mold forming agents, floating agents Selecting agents, gear lubricants, hydrophobic agents, waterproof additives, wax emulsions, etc.
Saturated high-carbon primary amines such as octadecylamine are used as release agents for hard rubber and polyurethane foams. Dodecylamine is used in the regeneration of natural and synthetic rubber, as a surfactant in electroless tin plating solutions, as a reductive amination of isomaltose to obtain malt derivatives, and as a diesel fuel additive.
Production of cationic surfactants
Primary amines and their salts can be used as effective ore flotation agents, fertilizer or explosive anti-caking agents, paper water repellents, corrosion inhibitors, lubricant additives, biocides in the petroleum industry, fuel and gasoline additives, electronic cleaning agents, emulsifiers Agents, production of organometallic clays, additives for pigment processing, water treatment agents, molding agents, etc. Primary amines can be used to produce quaternary ammonium salt-type asphalt emulsifiers, which are widely used in the laying and maintenance of high-grade highways, which can reduce the labor in construction and maintenance, and help improve the service life of the pavement.
Production of nonionic surfactants
The adducts of aliphatic primary amines and ethylene oxide are mainly used as antistatic agents in the plastics industry. Ethoxylated amines cannot dissolve in plastics, so that it migrates to part of the surface of the plastic. Once it reaches the surface, the ethoxylated The amine will fully absorb the moisture in the atmosphere, and the surface of the plastic will become an antistatic plastic.
Production of amphoteric surfactants
Dodecylamine reacts with methyl acrylate to obtain N-dodecyl-B-aminopropionic acid after saponification and neutralization. The properties of this type of surfactant are: the aqueous solution is a light-colored or colorless transparent liquid, easily soluble in water Or ethanol, easily biodegradable, resistant to hard water, less irritating to the skin, and less toxic. Uses are: foaming agent, emulsifier, corrosion inhibitor, liquid detergent, shampoo, hair conditioner, softener, antistatic agent, etc.